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Endemic and Indigenous Plants from Mascarene Islands with Antiviral Propensities

Author(s):

Mahomoodally Fawzi*, Jugreet Bibi Sharmeen, Haddad Juliano and El Kalamouni Chaker   Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Background: Antiviral resistance and inefficiency of available antiviral drugs to effectively treat viral infections have prompted many researchers worldwide to explore medicinal plants and their isolated compounds as alternative antivirals. The rich flora from the Mascarene Islands has also been thoroughly studied for their wide therapeutic activities, including their antiviral properties.

Objective: The aim of this review is to highlight the antiviral propensities of Mascarene endemic and indigenous medicinal plants.

Methodology: A review of the literature was conducted via major databases and other primary sources of information. The inhibitory concentration/effective dose causing 50% viral inhibition (IC50/ED50), cytotoxic concentration causing 50% reduction in cell viability (CC50), and selectivity index (SI) were reported, and mechanisms of antiviral action were also discussed.

Results: Stillingia lineata was the most effective against chikungunya virus (SI: 10.9), and among its isolated compounds, 12-O-acetylphorbol-13(2″-methyl)- butyrate and 12-deoxyphorbol- 13(2″-methyl)butyrate were the most potent and selective inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication (SI: 41 and >240, respectively). 12-O-acetylphorbol-13(2″-methyl)- butyrate, 12β-O-[nona- 2Z,4E,6E-trienoyl]-4α-deoxyphorbol-13-butyrate, 12-deoxyphorbol-13(2″-methyl)butyrate, and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-[8′-oxohexadeca-2E,4E,6E-trienoate showed strong selective antiviral effect on human immunodeficiency virus-I (SI: 36-899) and II (SI: 33-2056). Obetia ficifolia and Erythroxylon laurifolium were most active against the herpes virus (SI: 18.5 and 16, respectively). Labourdonnaisia glauca showed potent anti-poliovirus activity (SI: 40), while Badula insularis, Labourdonnaisia glauca and Myonima violacea were active against rhinovirus (SI: 1.3-2.5). Both anti-zika and anti-dengue virus activities were reported for Aphloia theiformis, Doratoxylon apetalum, Phyllanthus phillyreifolius and Psiloxylon mauritianum.

Conclusion: Promising spectrum of antiviral properties notably against zika, dengue, chikungunya, polio-, rhino-, herpes, and human immunodeficiency viruses were presented by the Mascarene plants suggesting them as viable candidates for the potential development of effective natural antiviral drugs.

Keywords:

Endemic, indigenous, medicinal plants, mascarene, islands, antiviral.

Affiliation:

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Unité Mixte Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical, INSERM U1187, CNRS UMR 9192, IRD UMR 249, Université de La Réunion. Plateforme Technologique CYROI, 94791, Sainte Clotilde, La Réunion, Unité Mixte Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical, INSERM U1187, CNRS UMR 9192, IRD UMR 249, Université de La Réunion. Plateforme Technologique CYROI, 94791, Sainte Clotilde, La Réunion



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