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Exploring AT2R and its Polymorphism in Different Diseases: An Approach to Develop AT2R as a Drug Target beyond Hypertension

Author(s):

Bhanu Sharma, Tahir Hussain, Mohammed Azhar Khan and Varun Jaiswal *   Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )

Abstract:


The Angiotensin II type 2 Receptor (AT2R) is one of the critical components of the renin- angiotensin system (RAS), which performs diverse functions like inhibiting cell differentiation, cell proliferation, vasodilatation, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation. AT2R is relatively less studied in comparison to other components of RAS despite its uniqueness (sex-linked) and diverse functions. The AT2R is differentially expressed in different tissues, and its gene polymorphisms are associated with several diseases. The molecular mechanism behind the association of AT2R and its gene polymorphisms with the diseases remains to be fully understood, which hinders the development of AT2R as a drug target. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AT2R are found at different locations (exons, introns, promoter, and UTR regions) and were studied for association with different diseases. There may be different mechanisms behind these associations as some AT2R SNP variants were associated with differential expression, the SNPs (A1675G/ A1332G) affect the alternate splicing of AT2R mRNA, A1332G genotype results in shortening of the AT2R mRNA and subsequently defective protein. Few SNPs were found to be associated with the diseases in either females (C4599A) or males (T1334C). Several other SNPs were expected to be associated with other similar/related diseases, but studies have not been done yet. The present review emphasizes on the significance of AT2R and its polymorphisms associated with the diseases to explore the precise role of AT2R in different diseases and the possibility to develop AT2R as a potential drug target.

Keywords:

Renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin II type 2 receptor, single nucleotide polymorphism, angiotensin-converting enzyme, drug target, hypertension.

Affiliation:

Faculty of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Post Box No. 9, Head post Office, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Post Box No. 9, Head post Office, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do 13120



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