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Parkinson’s Disease: A Current Perspectives on Parkinson’s Disease and Key Bioactive Natural Compounds as Future Potential Drug Candidates

Author(s):

Nabeel Ali, Amna Syeda, Tenzin Topgyal, Naseem Gaur and Asimul Islam*   Pages 1 - 19 ( 19 )

Abstract:


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common types of neurological disorder pre-vailing worldwide and is rapidly increasing in the elderly population across the globe. The cause of PD is still unknown, but a number of genetic as well as environmental factors contributing to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease have been identified. The hallmark of PD includes dopamine deficiency (neurotransmitter imbalance) due to the gradual loss of dopaminergic nerves in the sub-stantia nigra in the midbrain. Studying the mutation of associated genes is particularly informative in understanding the fundamental molecular and pathogenic changes in PD. Intracellular accumulation of misfolded or degraded protein due to mutated genes leading to the manifestation of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress followed by multifaceted patho-physiologic symptoms. Other studies include the appearance of both motor and non-motor responses like resting tremor, muscle stiffness, slow movement and anxiety, anaemia, constipation, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Many bioactive natural compounds have shown positive pharmacological results in treating a number of extensive disease models of PD. Despite the availability of end number of potent medicinal plants around the world, limited research has been done associated with various neurological disorders, in-cluding PD. The currently available dopamine-based drug treatments have several side-effects, fur-ther, not effective enough to combat PD completely. Therefore, various plant-based compounds with medicinal benefits have grabbed lots of attention of researchers to deal with various life-threatening neurodegenerative disorders like PD. On the basis of literature available till date, here, we have dis-cussed and addressed the molecular basis, current scenario, and the best possible treatment of PD for the future with minimal or no side-effects using various key bioactive compounds from natural origin/medicinal plants.

Keywords:

Parkinsonism, dopamine, natural products, emerging treatment, neurodegenerative disorder, α-synuclein.

Affiliation:

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Jammu, J&K, 180009, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi



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