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Triazole-containing Heterocycles: Privileged Scaffolds in Anti-Trypanosoma Cruzi Drug Development

Author(s):

Kamdem Boniface Pone*, Sadou Dalhatou , Hugues Kamdem Paumo, Lebogang Maureen Katata-Seru and Elizabeth Igne Ferreira   Pages 1 - 27 ( 27 )

Abstract:


Background: Chagas disease is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is transmitted to humans through the excreta of infected blood-sucking triatomine bugs. According to the World Health Organization, 6 to 7 million people are infected with T. cruzi worldwide, mainly in Latin America, with more than 10000 deaths annually.

Aim of the Study: The present study aims to provide comprehensive literature information on the importance of triazole-containing heterocycles in developing anti-Chagas disease agents.

Methodology: The embodied information was acquired without date limitation by December 2020 using various electronic databases including, SciFinder, PubMed (National Library of Medicine), Science Direct, Wiley, ACS (American Chemical Society), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), Google Scholar, Springer, Scopus, and Web of Science.

Results: Upon in vitro studies, more than 100 triazole-containing heterocycles have been predicted as active compounds against the pathogen responsible for the American trypanosomiasis. However, less is known about their in vivo activity in animal models and their clinical studies in humans. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic studies of these bioactive compounds are still pending. Despite the variety of mechanisms of action attributed to most of these molecules, the exact mechanism involved is still controversial. Thus, in vivo experiments, followed by pharmacokinetics, and the mechanism of action of the most active compounds, should be the subject of future investigation.

Conclusion: All in all, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of triazole-containing heterocycles in search of potential candidates for drug development against Chagas disease. Nonetheless, the use of new catalysts and chemical transformations is expected to provide avenues for the synthesis of unexplored triazole derivatives, leading to the development of triazole-containing compounds with new properties and trypanocidal activity.

Keywords:

Triazoles, American trypanosomiasis, Protozoan parasite, Synthesis, Drug discovery, Neglected disease.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maroua, P.O. Box. 814 Maroua, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Mmabatho, Mafikeng 2735, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Mmabatho, Mafikeng 2735, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo



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