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Combinational Approaches Targeting Neurodegeneration, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy

[ Vol. 22 , Issue. 16 ]


Siddhi Dilip Chalke and Pravin Popatrao Kale*   Pages 1810 - 1824 ( 15 )


Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most severe ocular problems of diabetes. It is a microvascular complication that impairs the vision of diabetic individuals and can cause acquired blindness. Currently, available treatment options like laser therapy, vitrectomy, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, and glucocorticoids help to reduce vision loss at advanced stages. In spite of the available therapies, patients with severe vision loss face difficulty in achieving the normal vision. There is a need for the development of newer treatment strategies to address the condition from the early stages. Multiple factors owing to complex pathophysiological events are responsible for this long-term complication. Neurodegeneration, inflammation, and oxidative stress are the three important factors associated with the development of DR. Oxidative stress is a major contributor to the onset and progression of DR. Pathological events like retinal neurodegeneration and inflammation damage the retina in the early stages of DR. Different combinations of treatments targeting these pathological events are discussed in the present review. The first combination discussed is citicoline and resveratrol and the second combination is duloxetine and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). These combinations may help in the early stages of DR. CD5-2, and angiopoietin-2 inhibitors is the third combination and this combination may help to manage diabetic macular edema. The main purpose of this article is to discuss the link between these pathologies and the three combinational approaches with the objective of considerating newer therapeutic approaches in research related to DR treatment.


Diabetic retinopathy, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, inflammation, citicoline, duloxetine, angiopoietin-2 inhibitors.


Department of Pharmacology, SVKM’S Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Mumbai-400 056, Department of Pharmacology, SVKM’S Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Mumbai-400 056

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