Muthuraman Arunachalam*, Muthusamy Ramesh*, Venkataratinakumar Thiagarajan, Sumeet K. Singla, Seema Mudhol and Serva P. Muthukumar Pages 1688 - 1703 ( 16 )
The neuron is high-energy utilizing tissue. The rate of neuronal cell respiration is higher than in other cells. Cellular respiration occurs with mitochondria. The healthy production and functions of mitochondria play a key role in the maintenance of healthy neurons. In pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, healthy mitochondria help to alleviate pathological events in neuronal cells. Conversely, mitochondrial dysfunction promotes the acceleration of the neurodegenerative process. Furthermore, glial-derived mitochondria contribute to multiple roles in the regulation of healthy neuron functions. It also supports releasing of the neurotransmitters; generation of the impulses, regulation of the membrane potential and molecular dynamics; controlling of the axonal transport; controlling of the mitochondrial fission and fusion functions in the peripheral as well as the central nervous system. Moreover, it plays a key role in the regeneration process of neuronal cells. Therefore, healthy mitochondria can provide a healthy environment for neuronal cell function and can treat neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we explore the current view of healthy mitochondria and their role in healthy neuronal functions.
Glial cell, membrane potential, mitochondrial fusion, mitochondrial fission, neurodegenerative disorder, neurotransmitter.
Pharmacology Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, 08100-Bedong, Kedah Darul Aman, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Omega College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad 501 301, Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai-625002, Tamilnadu, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 1A52242, Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru-570020, Karnataka, Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru-570020, Karnataka