Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


An Overview of Prospective Drugs for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Author(s):

Ping Wu, Zhenyu Liu, Xiaohong Jiang and Hao Fang*   Pages 1 - 13 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Aims: This study provided an overview of several emerging anti-diabetic molecules.

Background: Diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder involving dysregulation of glucose homeostasis at various levels. Insulin, which is produced by β-pancreatic cells, is a chief orchestrator of glucose metabolism, regulating its consumption within cells, which leads to energy generation or storage as glycogen. Abnormally lower insulin secretion from β-cells, insulin insensitivity, and insulin tolerance lead to higher plasma glucose levels, resulting in metabolic complications. The last century has witnessed extraordinary efforts by the scientific community to develop anti-diabetic drugs, and these efforts yielded the discovery of exogenous insulin and various classes of oral anti-diabetic drugs.

Objective: Despite these exhaustive anti-diabetic pharmaceutical and therapeutic efforts, long-term glycemic control, hypoglycemic crisis, safety issues, large-scale economic burden, side effects remain core problems.

Method: The last decade has witnessed the development of various new classes of anti-diabetic drugs with different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles. Details of their FDA approvals and advantages/disadvantages are summarized in this review, Result: Salient features of insulin degludec, sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, glucokinase activators, fibroblast growth factor 21 receptor agonists, and GLP-1 agonists are discussed.

Conclusion: In the future, these new anti-diabetic drugs should have broad clinical applicability.

Keywords:

molecule drugs, diabetes therapeutics, insulin degludec, SGLT2 inhibitors, glucokinase activators, FGF21-receptor agonists, GLP agonist

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology, 3rd Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, Department of Endocrinology, 3rd Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, Department of Endocrinology, 3rd Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, Department of Pharmacology, 3rd Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province



Read Full-Text article