Ping Wu, Zhenyu Liu, Xiaohong Jiang and Hao Fang* Pages 445 - 457 ( 13 )
Aims: The aim of this study is to provide an overview of several emerging anti-diabetic molecules.Background: Diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis at various levels. Insulin, which is produced by β-pancreatic cells, is a chief regulator of glucose metabolism, regulating its consumption within cells, which leads to energy generation or storage as glycogen. Abnormally low insulin secretion from β-cells, insulin insensitivity, and insulin tolerance lead to higher plasma glucose levels, resulting in metabolic complications. The last century has witnessed extraordinary efforts by the scientific community to develop anti-diabetic drugs, and these efforts have resulted in the discovery of exogenous insulin and various classes of oral anti-diabetic drugs. Objective: Despite these exhaustive anti-diabetic pharmaceutical and therapeutic efforts, long-term glycemic control, hypoglycemic crisis, safety issues, large-scale economic burden and side effects remain the core problems. Methods: The last decade has witnessed the development of various new classes of anti-diabetic drugs with different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Details of their FDA approvals and advantages/disadvantages are summarized in this review. Results: The salient features of insulin degludec, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, glucokinase activators, fibroblast growth factor 21 receptor agonists, and GLP-1 agonists are discussed. Conclusion: In the future, these new anti-diabetic drugs may have broad clinical applicability. Additional multicenter clinical studies on these new drugs should be conducted.
Molecule drugs, diabetes therapeutics, insulin degludec, SGLT2 inhibitors, glucokinase activators, FGF21 receptor agonists, GLP agonists.
Department of Pharmacology, 3rd Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, Department of Endocrinology, 3rd Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, Department of Endocrinology, 3rd Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, Department of Pharmacology, 3rd Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province