Suet Lee Hor, Seong Lin Teoh and Wei Ling Lim* Pages 1 - 19 ( 19 )
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the human midbrain. Research has been competing to understand the pathology of PD and elucidate the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Current pharmacological treatments primarily focused on improving dopamine metabolism in PD patients, despite the side effects of long-term usage. In recent years, it is recognized that oxidative stress-mediated pathways lead to neurodegeneration in the brain, which is associated with the pathophysiology of PD. The importance of oxidative stress is often less emphasized when developing potential therapeutic approaches. Natural plant antioxidants have been shown to mediate the oxidative stress-induced effects in PD, which have gained considerable attention in vitro and in vivo. Yet, clinical trials on natural polyphenol compounds are limited, restricting the potential use of these compounds as alternative treatment for PD. Therefore, this review provides an understanding on the oxidative stress-induced effects in PD by elucidating the underlying events contributing to oxidative stress and explore the potential use of polyphenols in improving the oxidative status in PD. Preclinical findings have supported the potential of polyphenols in providing neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced toxicity in PD. However, limiting factors, such as safety and bioavailability of polyphenols, warrant further investigations as such to make them the potential target for clinical applications in the treatment and management of PD.
Parkinson`s disease, polyphenols, oxidative stress, neuroprotection, bioavailability
Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, 47500 Selangor, Department of Anatomy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, 47500 Selangor