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Genomic Profiles and Current Therapeutic Agents in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 4 ]


Akihiro Ohmoto* and Chigusa Morizane   Pages 389 - 405 ( 17 )


Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare tumors that mainly occur in the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tract and lungs. According to the current World Health Organization classification for GEP-NENs and lung NENs, treatment strategies differ for well-differentiated and poorly differentiated subtypes. For well-differentiated GEP-NENs, somatostatin analogues (SSA), peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and molecular-targeted agents are approved as the standards of care based on phase III clinical trial data. Promising data regarding the use of everolimus and the novel SSA pasireotide for lung NENs are emerging, though additional studies are required to confirm these effects. For poorly differentiated tumors from the GEP tract and lung, a platinum-based cytotoxic regimen is widely used. Genomic analysis has recently revealed a diverse pattern of primary organ-dependent mutations, and the use of traditional treatment strategies versus organ-specific strategies is currently under discussion. In addition, clinical trials for several molecular-targeted agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of NENs are currently underway. Accumulating genomic information is expected to contribute to the development of novel therapies for other organ-derived NENs or poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). Here, we provide an updated overview of the current knowledge regarding genomic profiles and representative agents for NENs and highlight the prospects for future investigations.


Neuroendocrine neoplasms, WHO classification, genomic analysis, somatostatin analogue, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, molecular-targeted agent, everolimus, sunitinib.


Division of Medical Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo 1358550, Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo 1040045

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