Ammu Prasanna Kumar*, Sungmun Lee and Suryani Lukman* Pages 1680 - 1694 ( 15 )
Amylin is a neuroendocrine peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic ß-cells; however, amylin is toxic to ß-cells when it is aggregated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is important to understand amylin’s structures and aggregation mechanism for the discovery and design of effective drugs to inhibit amylin aggregation. In this review, we investigated experimental and computational studies on amylin structures and inhibitors. Our review provides some novel insights into amylin, particularly for the design of its aggregation inhibitors to treat T2DM. We detailed the potential inhibitors that have been studied hitherto and highlighted the neglected need to consider different amylin attributes that depend on the presence/absence of physiologically relevant conditions, such as membranes. These conditions and the experimental methods can greatly influence the results of studies on amylininhibitor complexes. Text-mining over 3,000 amylin-related PubMed abstracts suggests the combined therapeutic potential of amylin with leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, which are two key hormones in obesity. The results also suggest that targeting amylin aggregation can contribute to therapeutic efforts for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, we have also reviewed the role of amylin in other conditions including obesity and AD. Finally, we provided insights for designing inhibitors of different types (small molecules, proteins, peptides/mimetics, metal ions) to inhibit amylin aggregation.
Amylin, islet amyloid polypeptide, IAPP, aggregation inhibitors, type 2 diabetes therapy, Alzheimer's disease therapy, conformation of amylin, literature review.
Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Healthcare Engineering Innovation Center, College of Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi