Fazlurrahman Khan, Sandra Folarin Oloketuyi and Young-Mog Kim* Pages 1156 - 1179 ( 24 )
The increase in antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria has led to the development of new therapeutic approaches to inhibit biofilm formation as well as interfere quorum sensing (QS) signaling systems. The QS system is a phenomenon in which pathogenic bacteria produce signaling molecules that are involved in cell to cell communication, production of virulence factors, biofilm maturation, and several other functions. In the natural environment, several non-pathogenic bacteria are present as mixed population along with pathogenic bacteria and they control the behavior of microbial community by producing secondary metabolites. Similarly, non-pathogenic bacteria also take advantages of the QS signaling molecule as a sole carbon source for their growth through catabolism with enzymes. Several enzymes are produced by bacteria which disrupt the biofilm architecture by degrading the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) such as exopolysaccharide, extracellular- DNA and protein. Thus, the interference of QS system by bacterial metabolic products and enzymatic catalysis, modification of the QS signaling molecules as well as enzymatic disruption of biofilm architecture have been considered as the alternative therapeutic approaches. This review article elaborates on the diversity of different bacterial species with respect to their metabolic products as well as enzymes and their molecular modes of action. The bacterial enzymes and metabolic products will open new and promising perspectives for the development of strategies against the pathogenic bacterial infections.
Bacteria, biofilm, quorum sensing, inhibition, metabolites, pathogen, virulence.
Marine-Integrated Bionics Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, 5000, Marine-Integrated Bionics Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513