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Current Understanding of Group A Streptococcal Biofilms

Author(s):

Heema Kumari Nilesh Vyas, Emma-Jayne Proctor, Jason McArthur, Jody Gorman and Martina Sanderson-Smith*   Pages 1 - 11 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: It has been proposed that GAS may be able to exist as biofilms. Biofilms are microbial communities that aggregate on a surface, and exist within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilms offer bacteria an increased survival advantage, in which bacteria persist, and resist host immunity and antimicrobial treatment. The biofilm phenotype has long been recognized as a virulence mechanism for many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, however very little is known about the role of biofilms in GAS pathogenesis.

Objective: This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of biofilms in GAS pathogenesis. This review assesses evidence of GAS biofilm formation, role of GAS virulence factors in GAS biofilm formation, modelling GAS biofilms, and discusses the polymicrobial nature of biofilms in the oropharynx in relation to GAS.

Conclusion: Further study is needed to improve the current understanding of GAS as both a mono-species biofilm, and as a member of a polymicrobial biofilm. Improved modelling of GAS biofilm formation in settings closely mimicking in vivo conditions will ensure biofilms generated in the lab closely reflect those occurring during a clinical infection.

Keywords:

Streptococcus pyogenes, Group A Streptococcus, biofilms, biofilm formation, antibiotics, virulence factors, biofilm modelling, polymicrobial.

Affiliation:

School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, and Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, and Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, and Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, and Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, and Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong



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