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Photopolymerizable Resins for 3D-Printing Tissue Engineered Implants

Author(s):

Antonio J. Guerra, Hernan Lara-Padilla, Luiz H. Catalani, Matthew L. Becker, Ciro A. Rodriguez and David Dean*   Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )

Abstract:


With the advent of inexpensive and highly accurate 3D printing devices, a tremendous flurry of research activity has been unleashed into new resorbable, polymeric materials that can be printed using three approaches: hydrogels for bioprinting and bioplotting, sintered polymer powders, and solid cured (photocrosslinked) resins. Additionally, there is a race to understand the role of extracellular matrix components and cell signaling molecules and to fashion ways to incorporate these materials into resorbable implants. These chimeric materials along with microfluidic devices to study organs or create labs on chips, are all receiving intense attention despite the limited number of polymer systems that can accommodate the biofabrication processes necessary to render these constructs. Perhaps most telling is the limited number of photo-crosslinkable, resorbable polymers and fabrication additives available to create resins (e.g., photoinitiators, solvents, dyes, dispersants, emulsifiers, or bioactive molecules such as micro-RNAs, peptides, proteins, exosomes, micelles, or ceramic crystals) have been validated as biocompatible. Advances are needed to manipulate 4D properties such as preimplantation cell culture, mechanical properties, resorption kinetics, drug delivery, scaffold surface functionalization, cell attachment, cell proliferation, cell maturation, or tissue remodeling all of which are necessary for regenerative medicine applications and the even smaller set of materials in clinical use. This review will outline the current state of photochemical 3D printing and resin technology including resorbable polymers, additives and strategies for advanced functionalization, which will ultimately facilitate clinical use of these materials.

Keywords:

Photoinitiator, Photocrosslinking, Crosslinker and Co-crosslinker, Dispersant, Emulsifier, Light Attenuator, Fabrication Additive, Biocompatibility, Cytotoxicity, Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing), Stereolithography, Tissue Engineering, Regenerative Medicine.

Affiliation:

Mechanical Engineering and Civil Construction, Universitat de Girona, Girona, Department of Plastic Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Quimica Fundamental, Department of Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, Department of Plastic Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, Department of Plastic Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210



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