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Recent Advances in Antibacterial, Antiprotozoal and Antifungal Trends of Eurycoma longifolia: A Review of Therapeutic Implications and Future Prospects

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 14 ]

Author(s):

Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain, Isa Naina Mohamed and Ahmad Nazrun Shuid*   Pages 1657 - 1671 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Background: Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) has gained widespread recognition due to its versatile pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anti-diabetic, ergogenic, insecticidal, anti-rheumatism, bone protection, and anti-ulcer effects.

Objective: This review was aimed to critically overview the literature and summarizes the antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antifungal trends of E. longifolia and its medicinally active components.

Results: Besides its well-documented safety, efficacy, and tolerability, a plethora of in vitro, in vivo, and human clinical studies has evidenced the antimicrobial efficacy of E. longifolia and its bioactive constituents. Phytochemical screening of various types of extracts (methanolic, ethyl acetate, and nbutanolic) from different parts (roots, stem, and leaves) of E. longifolia displayed a dose-dependent antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antifungal responses. Comparative analysis revealed that the root extract of E. longifolia exhibited the highest antimicrobial efficacy compared to other parts of the plant. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identified that among all of the medicinal compounds isolated/ extracted from different parts of E. longifolia, eurycomanone displayed the strongest antibacterial, antiprotozoal and antifungal activities.

Conclusion: Based on the critical analysis of the literature, we identified that E. longifolia exhibits promising antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antifungal efficacies against various pathogenic microbes and thus can be considered as a potential complementary and alternative antimicrobial therapy.

Keywords:

Complementary and alternative medicine, Eurycoma longifolia, eurycomanone, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, antifungal.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (The National University of Malaysia), Jalan Yaacob Latif 56000, Cheras, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Bandar Puncak Alam 42300, Selangor, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (The National University of Malaysia), Jalan Yaacob Latif 56000, Cheras, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (The National University of Malaysia), Jalan Yaacob Latif 56000, Cheras

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