Trevor L. Kane, Katelyn E. Carothers and Shaun W. Lee* Pages 111 - 127 ( 17 )
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen capable of causing a range of infections in humans from gastrointestinal disease, skin and soft tissue infections, to severe outcomes such as sepsis. Staphylococcal infections in humans can be frequent and recurring, with treatments becoming less effective due to the growing persistence of antibiotic resistant S. aureus strains. Due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, and the current limitations on antibiotic development, an active and highly promising avenue of research has been to develop strategies to specifically inhibit the activity of virulence factors produced S. aureus as an alternative means to treat disease.
Objective: In this review we specifically highlight several major virulence factors produced by S. aureus for which recent advances in antivirulence approaches may hold promise as an alternative means to treating diseases caused by this pathogen. Strategies to inhibit virulence factors can range from small molecule inhibitors, to antibodies, to mutant and toxoid forms of the virulence proteins.
Conclusion: The major prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of S. aureus combined with the lack of new antibiotic discoveries highlight the need for vigorous research into alternative strategies to combat diseases caused by this highly successful pathogen. Current efforts to develop specific antivirulence strategies, vaccine approaches, and alternative therapies for treating severe disease caused by S. aureus have the potential to stem the tide against the limitations that we face in the post-antibiotic era.
Staphylococcus aureus, virulence, antivirulence, MRSA, review, pathogenesis.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556