Taskeen Niaz, Zeeshan Hafeez and Muhammad Imran* Pages 1269 - 1280 ( 12 )
Background: Global death rate due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is highest as compared to other ailments. Principal risk factor associated with CVDs is hypertension. Major classes of current antihypertensive (AHT) therapies include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs). All these antihypertensive therapeutic drugs have low oral bioavailability and can induce upper respiratory tract abstraction, angioedema, reflex tachycardia and extreme hypotensive effect after oral administration which can cause lethal effects in patients with heart diseases.Objective: Controlled and targeted release by using antihypertensive nano-medicines can provide better solution to overcome above-mentioned side effects. Results: Scientific evolution towards the development of biopolymer based nano-carrier systems has unlocked new horizons for safe and/or edible nano drug delivery systems. In this article, we have reviewed in detail various mechanisms of AHT drugs, major draw backs associated with current therapeutic strategies, and the advantages of AHT nano-medicines over conventional drugs. Furthermore, recent reports of bio-based nano/micro -carrier systems with different AHT drugs have been analyzed with their key features. In depth review has been presented for chitosan as a potential carrier of AHT drugs due to its distinctive properties comprising muco-adhesive attribute, permeation enhancement as well as its biocompatible and biodegradable nature. Conclusion: Chitosan based novel AHT nano-ceuticals can improve oral bioavailability, reduce hydrophobicity and increase the plasma half-life of AHT drugs by their sustained release in lower part of the GIT.
Nano carrier systems, hypertension, antihypertensive therapies, chitosan nano-particles, ACE-inhibitors, drug delivery.
Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park road, Islamabad, Équipe “Protéolyse & Biofonctionnalités des Protéines et des Peptides” (PB2P), Unité de Recherche “Animal et Fonctionnalités des Produits Animaux” (UR AFPA), Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54506, Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, 45550, Islamabad