Krishna A. Adeshara, Arundhati G. Diwan and Rashmi S. Tupe Pages 1309 - 1328 ( 20 )
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and over the past decades, it has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting the youth and middle-aged as it is the fourth leading cause of disease related to death. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes the severe pathogenesis cause micro vascular complications: nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and macro vascular complications: cardiovascular disease, heart attacks and stroke. Under hyperglycemia, activation of different signaling mechanisms such as an increased polyol pathway, advanced-glycation end product formation, activation of Protein Kinase C and hexosamine pathway leads to the over expression of reactive oxygen species and causes pathogenesis of diabetic complications. It is necessary to understand these pathways in diabetic complications causing damage to the secondary system of the body. In the past decade the understanding of these biochemical changes has increased tremendously and various molecules have been exploited as therapeutic targets for diabetic complications as better therapeutic approach. In this review, a brief overview about diabetes mellitus and chronic complications with their current understandings of cellular/molecular mechanisms and targeted therapies along with novel therapeutic strategies is discussed.
Diabetes, complications, signaling mechanisms, anti-diabetic agents, targeted therapies.
Biochemical Sciences Division, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune-411 046, India.