Jie Li, John A. Johnson and Huabo Su* Pages 989 - 1002 ( 14 )
Post-translational modification represents an important mechanism to regulate protein function in cardiac cells. Ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are a family of protein modifiers that share a certain extent of sequence and structure similarity. Conjugation of Ub or UBLs to target proteins is dynamically regulated by a set of UBL-specific enzymes and modulates the physical and physiological properties of protein substrates. Ub and UBLs control a strikingly wide spectrum of cellular processes and not surprisingly are involved in the development of multiple human diseases including cardiac diseases. Further identification of novel UBL targets will expand our understanding of the functional diversity of UBL pathways in physiology and pathology. Here we review recent findings on the mechanisms, proteome and functions of a subset of UBLs and highlight their potential impacts on the development and progression of various forms of cardiac diseases.
Ubiquitin, ubiquitin-like proteins, cardiomyopathies, proteasome, SUMO, NEDD8.
Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA